Women are coming together, sharing their experiences of sexual abuse and harassment, and having real conversations about creating change. But what exactly does it mean to objectify a woman? You may not think catcalling and heinous acts of sexual violence are related, but they actually have more in common than meets the eye.
How does a woman feel when a man wolf-whistles at her from across the street, or a male co-worker gives her body a fleeting once-over before looking her in the eye? The process by which sexual objectification is psychologically harmful to women was first described by psychologists Barbara Fredrickson and Tomi-Ann Roberts in the mids. But, despite hundreds of studies on the psychology of sexual objectification, convincing evidence of the process described by Fredrickson and Roberts has been lacking.
Sexual attraction is not the same as sexual objectification : objectification only occurs when the individuality of the desired person is not acknowledged. Pornography, prostitution, sexual harassment and the representation of women in mass media and art are all examples of common sexual objectification. Women are universally viewed as the Other across all cultures, a role which is both externally imposed and internalised, and which means that women are generally not truly regarded as fully human.
Objectification is a notion central to feminist theory. In this entry, the focus is primarily on sexual objectification, objectification occurring in the sexual realm. Martha Nussbaumhas identified seven features that are involved in the idea of treating a person as an object:.
Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire. Objectification more broadly means treating a person as a commodity or an object without regard to their personality or dignity. Objectification is most commonly examined at the level of a society, but can also refer to the behavior of individuals and is a type of dehumanization.
Cross-posted at Ms. The phenomenon, however, is more rampant than ever in popular culture. What is sexual objectification?
This is Part 1 of a four-part series on sexual objectification—what it is and how to respond to it. What exactly is it, though? How do we know sexual objectification when we see it?
Sexual objectification is the act of reducing a person into an object to use and consume sexually. Second wave feminism is used to describe feminist activism from the s to mids. There were several different forms of feminisms that emerged within the second wave movement, including radical feminism which "locates patriarchy within the explicit differences between women and men"  and was partly characterized by strong advocacy against pornography. They argue that women are much more often objectified than men, and that men do this objectifying.
What is sexual objectification? Judith Posner in Atkinson Review of Canadian Studies 1, Spring gives the following definition of objectification :. John Berger's analysis of the difference between nakedness and the nude in Ways of Seeing can help us understand how women's sexuality is objectified.
Sexual objectification is a social or cultural state of perception that excludes an individual's agency and unique personhood in order to frame them as an object that exists to sexually pleasure others. This state is also commonly referred to as as being a sex objectand can occur to an entire body, or to individual body parts breasts, waistline, butt, etc. Variations and combinations of these properties exist both inside and outside media, but these properties are commonly applied to images of objectified bodies. Then, actual people find themselves held to this standard and regarded as sex objects with these properties.