In this excerpt from her book, Ornit Shani explains how electoral democracy in India, shaped by the imagination of bureaucrats, came to life through universal adult franchise. F rom November India embarked on the preparation of the first draft electoral roll on the basis of universal adult franchise. A handful of bureaucrats at the Secretariat of the Constituent Assembly initiated the undertaking.
Permission is granted to use this material for non-commercial purposes. Please use proper attribution. One of the most critical ways that individuals can influence governmental decision-making is through voting.
Please refresh the page and retry. However, it was also an important first step in removing power from the central authority - King John - and spreading it wider. I ts 61st clause, known as the Security Clause, declared that a council of 25 barons be created with the power to overrule the will of the King, by force if necessary. This was repealed angrily by the King shortly afterwards, and mediaeval rulers largely ignored the document altogether, but it became an early foundation of England's - and later the United Kingdom's - unwritten constitution.
Suffragepolitical franchiseor simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives.
In earlyth-century Britain very few people had the right to vote. In Scotland the electorate was even smaller: in a mere 4, men, out of a population of more than 2. Large industrial cities like Leeds, Birmingham and Manchester did not have a single MP between them, whereas 'rotten boroughs' such as Dunwich in Suffolk which had a population of 32 in were still sending two MPs to Westminster.
I rise to resume the remarks that were interrupted last night at eleven o'clock. I was then trying to pursue a twofold line of argument—in the first place, that the Bill in the name of equality created such absurdities in the Parliamentary franchise, and introduced such stinging inequalities between those who were to receive it, that it could not be regarded as a temporary measure or policy at all. I attempted to point out that the chief cause of these inequalities was the effect that the Bill would have upon married women, that the measure was, in fact, one of penalising marriage.
In the English —speaking world conditions were also attached to the franchise. Great Britain from whom Trinidad and Tobago inherited its system started the franchise in All registrations during the 19 th century concerned men, while women had to wait until the pre-condition being that they should be 30 years and over based on residence, the occupation of land and or business premises, or the qualifications of their husbands in order to vote at local government elections. The process gained further momentum in April when Britain reduced the age qualification from 21 to 18 years.
Women constitutes more than half of the human race and play a crucial role in all spheres of life. The reality check of growth of any nation lies not only in its economic growth, but crucially in the status of its women. It is well known that the possibility for all citizens to participate in the management of public affairs is at the very heart of democracy.
Ninety years ago, on 13 Novemberthe Donoughmore Commission was set up to bring forth a worthy change that would satisfy all parties in Sri Lanka. The end result was universal franchise amid a fully-functional democratic structure. Lord Donoughmore, who was instrumental in bringing forth that change, was renowned for another reason.